GDP by expenditure component for the fourth quarter and the whole year of 2017

- In the fourth quarter of 2017, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased by 3.4% in real terms over a year earlier, compared with the 3.7% increase in the third quarter. For 2017 as a whole, GDP increased by 3.8% in real terms over 2016.
- On a seasonally adjusted quarter-to-quarter comparison basis, GDP increased by 0.8% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017 when compared with the third quarter.
- Analysed by major GDP component, private consumption expenditure (PCE) continued to increase by 6.3% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, the same as the growth in the third quarter. For 2017 as a whole, PCE increased by 5.4% in real terms over 2016.
- Government consumption expenditure (GCE) measured in national accounts terms increased by 3.1% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the growth of 4.5% in the third quarter. For 2017 as a whole, GCE increased by 3.4% in real terms over 2016.
- Gross domestic fixed capital formation (GDFCF) increased by 4.7% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, as against the decrease of 1.3% in the third quarter. For 2017 as a whole, GDFCF increased by 4.2% in real terms over 2016.
- Within the total GDFCF, expenditure on machinery, equipment and intellectual property products increased by 10.1% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, as against the decrease of 4.3% in the third quarter.
- On the other hand, expenditure on building and construction in GDFCF increased marginally by 0.1% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the increase of 3.4% in the third quarter. Within this category, expenditure on building and construction in respect of both the private and public sectors increased by 0.1% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017.
- Over the same period, total exports of goods increased by 3.4% in real terms over a year earlier, compared with the increase of 5.7% in the third quarter. Imports of goods increased by 5.4% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017, compared with the increase of 6.3% in the third quarter. For 2017 as a whole, total exports of goods and imports of goods recorded increases of 5.9% and 6.9% respectively in real terms over 2016.
- Exports of services increased by 4.0% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the 3.9% increase in the third quarter. Imports of services increased by 0.6% in real terms in the fourth quarter of 2017, compared with the 1.6% increase in the third quarter. For 2017 as a whole, exports of services and imports of services recorded increases of 3.5% and 1.8 % respectively in real terms over 2016.
- The implicit price deflator (IPD) of GDP, as a broad measure of overall inflation in the economy, increased by 2.7% in the fourth quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the 3.3% increase in the third quarter. For 2017 as a whole, the IPD of GDP increased by 3.0% over 2016.
- After incorporation of the latest information available, the year-on-year growth rate of GDP in real terms for the whole year of 2016 was revised upwards from 2.0% to 2.1%. For 2017, the year-on-year real growth rates of GDP for the first and second quarters remained at 4.3% and 3.9% respectively, while that for the third quarter was revised upwards from 3.6% to 3.7%.

**GDP by economic activity for the third quarter of 2017**

- The preliminary figures of chain volume measures of GDP by economic activity for the third quarter of 2017, which had already been released in late September 2017, were subsequently revised as more data became available.
- The revised figures showed that net output in respect of all the services activities taken together increased by 3.6% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the 3.2% increase in the second quarter of 2017.
- Analysed by constituent services sector and on a year-on-year comparison, net output in the import and export, wholesale and retail trades sector rose by 3.9% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the 3.4% growth in the second quarter. The growth in this sector was mainly underpinned by the vibrant regional trade flows and the pick-up in retail trades during the quarter.
- Net output in the financing and insurance sector grew by 5.3% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, following the growth of 4.9% in the second quarter. The continued growth of net output in this sector was mainly underpinned by the buoyant stock trading activities during the quarter.
- Net output in the accommodation services (covering hotels, guesthouses, boarding houses and other establishments providing short term accommodation) and food services sector increased by 2.5% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the growth of 1.4% in the second quarter.
- Net output in the transportation, storage, postal and courier services sector increased by 5.2% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the growth of 4.8% in the second quarter.
- Net output in the information and communications sector registered an increase of 4.0% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, after the increase of 3.7% in the second quarter.
- Net output in the real estate, professional and business services sector increased by 2.0% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, similar to the growth of 2.1% in the second quarter.
- Net output in the public administration, social and personal services sector recorded an increase of 3.8% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, higher than the growth of 2.9% in the second quarter.
- As for sectors other than the services sectors, net output in the local manufacturing sector rose by 0.3% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, similar to the 0.4% growth in the second quarter.
- Net output in the electricity, gas and water supply, and waste management sector recorded an increase of 5.4% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, as against the decrease of 0.6% in the second quarter.
- Net output in the construction sector increased by 4.7% in real terms in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier, compared with the growth of 3.2% in the second quarter.

**GDP by economic activity at current prices for 2016**

- Statistics on GDP by economic activity at current prices, which are compiled mainly based on data collected from the annual economic surveys, are useful for analysis of the contribution of different economic activities to the total GDP.
- The revised figures of GDP by economic activity at current prices for 2016 showed that the import and export, wholesale and retail trades sector accounted for the largest share (21.8%) of the GDP, followed by the public administration, social and personal services sector (18.1%), and the financing and insurance sector (17.7%).

**GNI for the third quarter of 2017**

- The preliminary figures of Gross National Income (GNI) for the third quarter of 2017, which were released in mid-December 2017, were also revised accordingly based on the revised GDP estimates.
- In the third quarter of 2017, GNI increased by 10.5% over a year earlier to $709.9 billion at current market prices, compared with the 9.9% increase in the second quarter of 2017.
- Measured at current market prices, the value of GNI was larger than GDP by $28.2 billion in the third quarter of 2017, representing a net external primary income inflow of the same amount, and equivalent to 4.1% of GDP in that quarter.
- After netting out the effect of price changes, real GNI increased by 6.9% in the third quarter of 2017 over a year earlier.
- Total primary income inflow into Hong Kong, estimated at $370.9 billion in the third quarter of 2017 and equivalent to 54.4% of GDP in that quarter, increased by 15.5% over a year earlier. As for the major components of total primary income inflow, direct investment income (DII), portfolio investment income (PII), other investment income (OII) and income on reserve assets increased by 5.5%, 33.1%, 72.1% and 49.9% respectively over a year earlier.
- Total primary income outflow, estimated at $342.7 billion in the third quarter of 2017 and equivalent to 50.3% of GDP in that quarter, increased by 8.8% over a year earlier. Regarding the major components of total primary income outflow, DII, PII and OII increased by 3.5%, 22.5% and 75.8% respectively over a year earlier.
- Taking the inflow and outflow together, a net external primary income inflow of $28.2 billion was recorded in the third quarter of 2017, compared with the net income inflow of $50.4 billion in the second quarter of 2017.

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