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Glossary of Terms

Term
Definition
Ability to speak a selected language/dialect
If a person aged 5 and over (excluding mute persons) is able to conduct a short conversation with a particular language/ dialect in everyday life activities such as studying at educational institution or using at work, he/ she is deemed to have the ability to speak the language/ dialect. A person who is capable of speaking a language/ dialect other than the usual language possesses the ability to speak that language/ dialect as another language/ dialect.
Age
Age is the number of complete years a person has passed since birth. It is derived from month and year of birth.
Area of current residence
Area in which a person was living at the time of the By-census.
Area of residence 5 years ago
The broad geographical area in which a person lived 5 years before the By-census. If the place is outside Hong Kong, the country of residence is recorded.
Average domestic household size
The average number of persons per domestic household. It is calculated by dividing the total number of persons who were living in domestic households by the total number of domestic households.
Average number of domestic households per 1 000 units of quarters (or degree of sharing)
This is calculated by dividing the total number of domestic households by the total number of quarters occupied by domestic households and then multiplying by a factor of 1 000.
Average number of rooms per domestic household
The average number of living/ dining rooms, bedrooms and other rooms, excluding kitchens and bathrooms/ toilets, used by each domestic household. It is calculated by dividing the total number of living/ dining rooms, bedrooms and other rooms exclusively used by domestic households by the total number of domestic households.
Average number of rooms per person
The average number of living/ dining rooms, bedrooms and other rooms, excluding kitchens and bathrooms/ toilets, used by each person. It is calculated by dividing the total number of living/ dining rooms, bedrooms and other rooms exclusively used by domestic households by the total number of persons in all domestic households.
Child dependency ratio
The number of persons aged under 15 per 1 000 persons aged between 15 and 64.
District Council district and Constituency Area
There are 18 districts in Hong Kong as declared under the District Councils Ordinance (Cap. 547): 4 on Hong Kong Island, 5 in Kowloon and 9 in the New Territories. A District Council is established in each district. The boundary of Constituency Area for each District Council is recommended by the Electoral Affairs Commission to the Chief Executive. The set of Constituency Area boundaries adopted in the 2016 Population By-census is based on those declared in the Declaration of Constituencies (District Councils) Order 2014 (L.N. 147 of 2014) made by the Chief Executive in Council under section 6 of the District Councils Ordinance (Cap. 547) for the District Council Election held on 22 November 2015. (Note: The boundaries of the Wan Chai district and Eastern district adopted in the 2016 Population By-census are not comparable with those adopted in the 2011 Population Census. )
Domestic household
A domestic household consists of a group of persons who live together and make common provision for essentials for living. These persons need not be related. If a person makes provision for essentials for living without sharing with other persons, he/she is also regarded as a household. In this case, the household is a one-person household. (Note: A domestic household must have at least one member who is a Usual Resident. Households comprising Mobile Residents only are not classified as domestic households.)
Domestic household having internally migrated
A household in which all of the household head(s) had internally migrated. In defining internal migration, a change in the area of residence refers to a move (a) from a District Council district to another District Council district; or (b) within a District Council district in the New Territories, from a new town to another new town, or from a new town to other areas in the district or vice versa.
Duration of residence in Hong Kong
Duration of residence in Hong Kong measures the total number of complete years for which a person has lived in Hong Kong. Any period of temporary absence from Hong Kong for 6 months or more was not counted in reckoning the duration.
Economic activity status
The population can be divided into two main groups, economically active population (i.e. the labour force) and economically inactive population as follows:
Economically active population: This comprises the employed (that is the working population) and the unemployed.
The working population refers to persons aged 15 and over who should (a) be engaged in performing work for pay or profit during the 7 days before the By-census; or (b) have formal job attachment during the 7 days before the By-census. The working population can be distinguished by the employment status as follows:
Employee: A person who works for an employer (private companies or government) for wage, salary, commission, tips or payment in kind. Domestic helpers, outworkers and paid family workers are also included here.
Employer: A person who works for profit or fees in his/ her own business/ profession and employs one or more persons to work for him/ her.
Self-employed: A person who works for profit or fees in his/ her own business/ profession, neither employed by someone nor employing others.
Unpaid family worker: A person who works for no pay in a family business is also considered as employed. Food and lodging and pocket money are not counted as pay.
Unemployed population: Refer basically to persons aged 15 and over who should (a) not have had a job and should not have performed any work for pay or profit during the 7 days before the By-census ; (b) have been available for work during the 7 days before the By-census; and (c) have sought work during the 30 days before the By-census.
(Note: Estimates of the unemployed based on population censuses/ by-censuses are likely to have a lower degree of accuracy. This is because the measurement of unemployment is not simple. For instance, in identifying an unemployed person, account has to be taken of a person’s availability for work and whether he or she actively seeking work. A large quantity of temporary field workers was employed to undertake the enumeration work in the population censuses/ by-censuses, and they could not be expected to have a full understanding of the labour force framework and the required skills in asking screening questions, particularly those on the activity related to work seeking. Studies on unemployment should therefore be primarily based on the data of the General Household Survey conducted by the Census and Statistics Department. Inclusion of the questions for identifying unemployed persons in the population censuses/ by-censuses mainly serves to complete the enumeration of the entire economically active population (i.e. the labour force). This is because the economically active population is composed of the working population and the unemployed population.)
Economically inactive population: This comprises persons who have not had a job and have not been at work during the 7 days before the By-census, excluding persons who have been on leave/ holiday during the 7-day period and persons who are unemployed. Persons such as home-makers, retired persons and all those aged below 15 are thus included.
Home-maker: A person who looks after the home without pay.
Student: A person who is studying full-time in educational institution (as for the 2016 Population By-census, students refers to those who had been studying in the first half of 2016 and would continue to study full-time in the academic year after the By-census [i.e. June 2016] ). Persons who are self-studying, or studying informal courses in miscellaneous training institutes or studying evening courses and were not working during the 7 days before the By-census are also included in this category. Student workers are classified as economically active persons and are not included in this group.
Retired person: A person who has worked previously but is not currently working because of old age.
Of independent means: A person who does not have to work for a living. The cost of living is generally borne by rental receivable, savings, investment returns or remittances.
Other economically inactive person: Economically inactive person not elsewhere classified, e.g. unpaid religious worker and person who cannot work or do not seek work because of permanent sickness or disablement.
Economically active population
This comprises the employed (that is the working population) and the unemployed.
Educational attainment
This comprises the highest level attended and the highest level completed.
(a) Highest level attended: Highest level attended is the highest level of education ever attained by a person in educational institution, regardless of whether he/ she had completed the course. Only formal courses are counted as educational attainment. A formal course shall be one that lasts for at least 1 academic year, requires specific academic qualifications for entrance (except sub-degree/ degree/ post-graduate courses offered by the Open University of Hong Kong) and includes examinations or specific academic assessment procedures.
(b) Highest level completed: Highest level completed is the highest level of education completed by a person in educational institution, regardless of whether he/ she had passed the examinations or assessments of the course. Only formal courses are counted for the highest level of education completed. A formal course shall be one that lasts for at least 1 academic year, requires specific academic qualifications for entrance (except sub-degree/ degree/ post-graduate courses offered by the Open University of Hong Kong) and includes examinations or specific academic assessment procedures.
Educational attainment are classified as follows:
No schooling: Including those who had never attended a formal course.
Pre-primary: Including all classes in kindergartens and child care centres.
Primary: Including Primary 1 – 6 in all educational institutions.
Lower secondary: Including Secondary 1 – 3 in all educational institutions.
Upper secondary: Including Secondary 4 – 7 of old academic structure, Secondary 4 – 6 of new academic structure or equivalent in all educational institutions, Project Yi Jin/ Yi Jin Diploma and craft level.
Post-secondary (diploma/ certificate): Including diploma/ certificate courses in Vocational Training Council/ Clothing Industry Training Authority/ Construction Industry Council/ Open University/ School of Professional and Continuing Education of University/ former Polytechnics/ other statutory or approved post-secondary colleges/ other colleges providing post-secondary courses/ former Teacher Colleges/ commercial schools, nurse training courses/ dental training courses/ distance learning courses/ other courses at diploma/ certificate level.
Post-secondary (sub-degree course): Including all higher certificate/ higher diploma/ professional diploma/ associate degree/ pre-associate degree/ endorsement certificate/ associateship or equivalent courses in universities/ Vocational Training Council, other sub-degree courses in universities funded by University Grants Committee, higher certificate/ higher diploma/ professional diploma/ associate degree/ pre-associate degree or equivalent courses in former Polytechnics/ other statutory or approved post-secondary colleges, higher diploma/ professional diploma/ associate degree/ pre-associate degree or equivalent courses in other colleges providing post-secondary courses, sub-degree courses in the Education University of Hong Kong (former Hong Kong Institute of Education), sub-degree level nurse training courses/ dental training courses, distance learning sub-degree level courses and other sub-degree level courses.
Post-secondary (degree course): Including all first degree, taught postgraduate and research postgraduate courses in local or non-local institutions.
Elderly dependency ratio
The number of persons aged 65 and over per 1 000 persons aged between 15 and 64.
Ethnicity
The ethnicity of a person is determined by self-identification. The classification of ethnicity is determined with reference to a combination of concepts such as cultural origins, nationality, colour and language. This practice is in line with the recommendations promulgated by the United Nations in 2008, and has taken into account the practices of other countries as well as local circumstances. In Hong Kong, a significant proportion of the population is Chinese, and among the non-Chinese, Asians account for the majority. Therefore, there are more Asian related ethnic groups in the classification.
Field of education
Field of education refers to the subject of the courses to which a person’s education attainment (highest level attended or highest level completed) was related.
General programmes: Including general programmes for preparatory, elementary and secondary education (include Yi Jin Diploma/ Project Yi Jin).
Arts and social science: Including studies in music; drawing and painting; sculpturing; drama; handicrafts; photography and cinematography; literature; languages and linguistics; history; philosophy; theology; religion; archaeology; anthropology; economics; sociology; pure psychology; clinical psychology; demography; geography; political science and regional studies.
Pure science: Including studies in mathematics; biology; chemistry; geology; physics; astronomy; meteorology; oceanography; statistics and actuarial science.
Education: Including studies in colleges of education and Hong Kong Technical Teacher’s College; certificate/ diploma of education courses and university degree courses in education.
Business and commercial studies: Including studies in banking; marketing; finance and investment; valuation; purchase and supply; insurance; secretaryship; company secretaryship; public and business administration; accountancy; shorthand; typing and book-keeping.
Computer studies: Including studies in computer programming and system analysis; electronic data processing; business machine and computer operation.
Medical and health related studies: Including studies in medicine (except Chinese herbal medicine); nursing; dentistry; psychiatry; radiology; pharmacy, dental and medical technology; physical and occupational therapy; speech therapy; anatomy; physiology; immunology; pathology and forensic medicine.
Architecture and construction engineering: Including studies in architecture, town planning and environmental design; transport studies; building technology such as surveying; carpentry, bricklaying, plastering and tiling, plumbing and pipe-fitting, sewerage; water supply and treatment; civil and structural engineering; building services engineering; soil mechanics; draughtsmanship; interior design; land, building and estate management.
Mechanical, electrical, electronic and marine engineering: Including studies in mechanical engineering; mining engineering; motor mechanics; vehicle technology; production engineering; plastic mould technology; tool and die technology; industrial engineering; electrical and electronic engineering; refrigeration and air-conditioning; television/ radio mechanics and servicing; telecommunications; marine electronics; ship building and repairs and naval architecture.
Textile, design and other industrial technology: Including studies in textile technology/ clothing technology such as dyeing, fabric, printing, garment and leather manufacturing; printing technology; industrial design; basic, graphic and 3-dimensional design; chemical engineering; watch and clock making and optics.
Other vocational studies: Including studies in law and jurisprudence; journalism; radio and television broadcasting; public relations; library sciences; social work; agricultural programmes; Chinese herbal medicine; tourism; hotel management; laboratory technicianship; civil security; military; vocational counselling and other service trades.
Hong Kong Resident Population
The Hong Kong Resident Population at the reference moment covers “Usual Residents” and “Mobile Residents”. “Usual Residents” refer to two categories of people: (1) Hong Kong Permanent Residents who had stayed in Hong Kong for at least 3 months during the 6 months before or for at least 3 months during the 6 months after the reference moment, regardless of whether they were in Hong Kong or not at the reference moment; and (2) Hong Kong Non-permanent Residents who were in Hong Kong at the reference moment. As for “Mobile Residents”, they are Hong Kong Permanent Residents who had stayed in Hong Kong for at least 1 month but less than 3 months during the 6 months before or for at least 1 month but less than 3 months during the 6 months after the reference moment, regardless of whether they were in Hong Kong or not at the reference moment.
Household composition
Household composition is derived from the information on relationship to the head of household of each person and the identification of spouse and parent-child relationships among members of the household. The different categories of household composition are as follows:
Nuclear family households
Composed of couple: A household comprising a married couple without any other related persons. It may or may not include other unrelated persons (e.g. domestic helpers).
Composed of couple and unmarried children: A household comprising a couple and their unmarried child(ren) without any other related persons. It may or may not include other unrelated persons (e.g. domestic helpers).
Composed of lone parent and unmarried children: A household comprising a father or mother and his/ her unmarried child(ren) without any other related persons. It may or may not include other unrelated persons (e.g. domestic helpers).
Relative households
Composed of couple and at least one of their parents: A household comprising a couple and at least one of their parents (including the parent(s) of the wife and/ or husband) without any other related persons. It may or may not include other unrelated persons (e.g. domestic helpers).
Composed of couple, at least one of their parents and their unmarried children: A household comprising a couple, at least one of their parents (including the parent(s) of the wife and/ or husband) and their unmarried children without any other related persons. It may or may not include other unrelated persons (e.g. domestic helpers).
Composed of other relationship combinations: A household comprising a group of related persons but not being unclassified in the above categories. It may or may not include other unrelated persons (e.g. domestic helpers).
Other households
One-person households: A household with only one person.
Non-relative households: A household comprising unrelated person(s).
Household size
Household size refers to the number of persons living in the domestic household.
Industry
The main kind of goods or services produced by the establishment in which a person worked during the 7 days before the reference moment. The brief descriptions and coverage of the industrial sectors of this industry classification are given as follows: [15]
Manufacturing: This industry sector includes the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. Substantial alteration, renovation and reconstruction of goods are generally considered to be manufacturing. Also included in the industry sector is specialised repair and maintenance of industrial and commercial machinery and equipment. Examples of this industry sector are food product manufacturing; wearing apparel industry; printing industry; manufacturing of electronic products; and repair and installation of machinery and equipment.
Construction: This industry sector includes general construction and specialised construction activities for buildings and civil engineering works. It includes new work, repair, additions and alterations, the erection of prefabricated building structure on the site and also construction of a temporary nature. Examples of this industry sector are building construction; civil engineering; building services installation and maintenance activities; and decoration, repair and maintenance for buildings.
Import/ export, wholesale and retail trades: This industry sector includes wholesale and retail sale (i.e. sale without transformation) of any type of goods, and rendering services incidental to the sale of merchandise. Wholesaling and retailing are the final steps in the distribution of merchandise. Examples of this industry sector are import and export trade; wholesale and retail trade; and peddlers.
Transportation, storage, postal and courier services: This industry sector includes the provision of passenger or freight transport, whether scheduled or not, by rail, road, water or air and associated activities such as airport, terminal and car park, loading and unloading of freight, storage, and postal and courier activities etc. Also included are sightseeing transport and renting of transport equipment with or without driver or operator. Examples of this industry sector are land transport; water transport; air transport; warehousing and support activities for transportation; and postal and courier activities.
Accommodation and food services: This industry sector includes the provision of short-stay accommodation for visitors and other travellers and the provision of complete meals and drinks fit for immediate consumption. Examples of this industry sector are hotels; guesthouses and boarding houses; restaurants; bars and lounges; and coffee shops.
Information and communications: This industry sector includes the production and distribution of information and cultural products, the provision of the means to transmit or distribute these products as well as data. Also included are broadcasting, communications and information technology activities, as well as the processing of data and other information service activities. Examples of this industry sector are publishing industry; radio and television broadcasting; telecommunications; information technology services; and news agencies.
Financing and insurance: This industry sector includes financial service activities, including insurance and pension funding activities, and activities to support financial services. Also included are the activities of holding assets, such as activities of holding companies and the activities of trusts, funds and similar financial entities. Examples of this industry sector are banks; investment and holding companies; insurance; security brokerage; and fund management.
Real estate, professional and business services: This industry sector includes (a) all real estate activities, (b) all activities requiring a high degree of professional training, and serve users with specialised knowledge and skills; and (c) establishments mainly engaged in performing various support activities for the day-to-day operations of other enterprises (some also supporting households). Examples of this industry sector are real estate development; real estate brokerage and agencies; real estate maintenance management; offices of lawyers, accountants, auditors, architects, surveyors; advertising and market research companies; specialised design activities; travel agencies, security and investigation activities; cleaning activities; office administrative and support activities.
Public administration, education, human health and social work activities: This industry sector includes government administration, establishments engaged in formulating and implementing the economic and social policy, and units maintaining public order and safety. This industry sector also includes establishments mainly engaged in the provision and support of education and training and establishments mainly engaged in providing human health care and social assistance. Examples of this industry sector are government services; educational institutions and other establishments engaged in educational and training services; medical and health services; elderly homes; and welfare institutions.
Miscellaneous social and personal services: This industry sector includes creative and performing arts activities; cultural activities; betting activities; sports, amusement and recreation activities; and all other services activities including personal services activities. This industry sector also includes activities of households as employers of domestic personnel. Examples of this industry sector are libraries and museums; theme parks; fitness centres; religious organisations; political organisations; repair of personal and household goods (such as motor vehicles and computers); laundry and dry-cleaning services; beauty and body prettifying treatment; and domestic helpers.
Others: Including such industries as “Agriculture, forestry and fishing”; “Mining and quarrying”; “Electricity and gas supply”; “Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities” and industrial activities unidentifiable or inadequately described.
Internal migration
Persons internally migrated were those whose area of current residence was different from the area of original residence 5 years ago. In defining internal migration, a change in the area of residence refers to a move (a) from a District Council district to another District Council district; or (b) within a District Council district in the New Territories, from a new town to another new town, or from a new town to other areas in the district or vice versa.
Labour force
That is the economically active population, comprising the employed (that is the working population) and the unemployed.
Labour force participation rate
The proportion of labour force in the total population aged 15 and over.
Main mode of transport to place of study
Mode of transport to place of study refers to the type(s) of transport a full-time student studying in Hong Kong usually used to travel to his/ her place of study. (For a person who uses more than one type of transport to go to his/ her place of study, the main mode of transport refers to the one used for travelling the longest distance.) “On-foot only” is recorded if the person usually walks to his/ her place of study and does not use any other mode of transport.
Main mode of transport to place of work
Mode of transport to place of work refers to the type(s) of transport a person with a fixed place of work in Hong Kong usually used to travel to his/ her place of work. (For a person who uses more than one type of transport to go to work, the main mode of transport refers to the one used for travelling the longest distance.) “On-foot only” is recorded if the person usually walks to work and does not use any other mode of transport.
Marital status
The marital status of a person is recorded according to the status reported by respondents at the time of enumeration in the population censuses/ by-censuses, regardless of whether the marriage or divorce had undergone any legal registration or ceremony.
Median age
The average age so calculated that 50% of the total number of persons were above that age and the other 50% were below it.
Median monthly domestic household income
The average monthly domestic household income so calculated that 50% of the total number of domestic households had incomes above that figure and the other 50% had incomes below it. Zero income households are included in the calculation.
Median monthly domestic household mortgage payment and loan repayment
The average monthly mortgage payment and loan repayment so calculated that 50% of the total number of domestic households owning the quarters they occupy with mortgage or loan paid more than that amount and the other 50% paid less than that. Households with zero mortgage payment and loan repayment by household members (i.e. with mortgage payment and loan repayment by non-household members only) are excluded in the calculation.
Median monthly domestic household rent
The average monthly rent so calculated that 50% of the total number of domestic households renting the accommodation they occupy paid more than that amount and the other 50% paid less than that. Households with zero rent are excluded in the calculation.
Median monthly income from main employment
The average income from main employment so calculated that 50% of the working population, excluding unpaid family workers, had income above that figure and the other 50% had income below it.
Median mortgage payment and loan repayment to income ratio
The average percentage of monthly household income paid on monthly mortgage payment and loan repayment so calculated that 50% of domestic households owning the quarters they occupy with mortgage or loan paid more than that percentage and the other 50% paid less than that. Households with zero income and/ or zero mortgage payment and loan repayment by household members (i.e. with mortgage payment and loan repayment by non-household members only) are excluded in the calculation.
Median outstanding period of mortgage payment or loan repayment
The average outstanding period of mortgage payment or loan repayment so calculated that 50% of the total number of domestic households owning the quarters they occupy with mortgage or loan had their outstanding period of mortgage payment or loan repayment above that figure and the other 50% had their outstanding period of mortgage payment or loan repayment below it. Households with zero mortgage payment and loan repayment by household members (i.e. with mortgage payment and loan repayment by non-household members only) are excluded in the calculation.
Median rent to income ratio
The average percentage of monthly household income paid on monthly household rent so calculated that 50% of domestic households renting the accommodation they occupy paid more than that percentage and the other 50% paid less than that. Households with zero income and/ or zero rent are excluded in the calculation.
Mobile Residents
They are Hong Kong Permanent Residents who had stayed in Hong Kong for at least 1 month but less than 3 months during the 6 months before or for at least 1 month but less than 3 months during the 6 months after the reference moment, regardless of whether they were in Hong Kong or not at the reference moment.
Monthly domestic household income
The total income (including earnings in cash from all employments and other cash incomes) for June 2016 of members of households.
Monthly domestic household mortgage payment and loan repayment
This is the amount paid by a domestic household owning the quarters it occupies with mortgage or loan on mortgage payment and loan repayment on its accommodation in June 2016. It includes payments for first mortgage, second mortgage, home equity loan or some other special payment schemes in order to redeem the quarters occupied but excludes payments for rates, government rent, water, electricity, gas, telephone and management fees. Mortgage payment and loan repayment paid by non-household members are also excluded.
Monthly domestic household rent
This is the amount paid by a domestic household renting the accommodation it occupies on its accommodation in June 2016. It includes rates, government rent and management fee for that month but excludes payments for water and electricity. For a main tenant, rent is the net amount he paid after deducting the rent he received from his sub-tenant(s) for subletting part of the quarters. Zero rent households include households living in accommodation of friends or relatives without paying any rent with or without permission, main tenant households with total rental receipts from sub-tenant(s) greater than or equal to rent paid, and those households whose quarters were provided free by employers.
Monthly income from main employment
For employers or self-employed persons, this is the amount earned excluding expenses incurred in running their main business. For employees, this is the total amount earned from their main employment including salary or wage, bonus, commission, overtime allowance, housing allowance, tips and other cash allowances. New Year bonus and double pay are excluded. The amount recorded refers to the income for June 2016.
Mortgage payment and loan repayment to income ratio
The percentage of monthly household income paid on monthly mortgage payment and loan repayment of a domestic household owning the quarters it occupies with mortgage or loan. Households with zero income and/ or zero mortgage payment and loan repayment by household members (i.e. with mortgage payment and loan repayment by non-household members only) are excluded in the calculation.
Nationality
Nationality may be related to a person’s place of residence, ethnicity or place of birth. It may not necessarily be related to a person’s travel document.
New town
The delineation of the areas into new towns is adopted from the boundaries developed by the Civil Engineering and Development Department as well as Planning Department for new town development purposes. There are 12 new towns in Hong Kong, namely Kwai Chung, Tsing Yi, Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai, Fanling/ Sheung Shui, Tai Po, Sha Tin, Ma On Shan, Tseung Kwan O and North Lantau.
Number of rooms (excluding kitchens and bathrooms/toilets)
A room is a space in the quarters enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering, or at least to a height of 2 metres, of a size large enough to hold a bed for an adult, that is at least 4 square metres. The total number of rooms includes bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, store rooms, study rooms utility rooms, servants’ rooms and other separate spaces used or intended for domestic purposes, so long as they meet the criteria of walls and floor space. Rooms partially divided because of fixed or movable partitions or because of their use (e.g. living-and-dining rooms without fixed partitions) are counted as separate rooms. Kitchens and bathrooms/ toilet rooms are counted separately. Passageways, verandahs and lobbies, are not counted, even if they meet the criteria.
Occupation
This refers to the kind of work a person performed during the 7 days before the reference moment. The brief descriptions and coverage of the major groups of this occupation classification are given as follows:
Managers and administrators: Including administrators, commissioners and directors in government service; consuls; councillors; directors, chief executive officers, presidents, general managers, functional managers, branch managers and small business managers in industry, commerce, import and export trade, wholesale and retail trade, catering and lodging services, transport, electricity, gas, water and other services and agricultural and fishery sectors.
Professionals : Including qualified professional scientists, doctors, dentists and other medical professionals; architects, surveyors and engineers; fashion designers, jewellery designers, vice-chancellors, directors, academic staff and administrators of university, post-secondary college; principals and teachers of secondary school; statisticians; mathematicians; system analysts and computer programmers; lawyers and judges; accountants; business consultants and analysts; social workers; social work assistants; translators and interpreters; news editors and journalists; writers; librarians and members of religious orders.
Associate professionals : Including science technicians, nurses and midwives, dental assistants and other health associate professionals; architectural, surveying and engineering technicians; optical and electronic equipment controllers; ship pilots and air traffic controllers; principals and teachers of primary school and kindergarten/ nursery; statistical assistants; computer operators; law clerks; accounting supervisors; public relation officers; sales representatives; interior designers; estate managers; superintendents, inspectors and officers of the police and other discipline services; performers and sportsmen.
Clerical support workers: Including stenographers, secretaries and typists; bookkeeping, finance, shipping, filing and personnel clerks; tellers; receptionists and information clerks.
Service and sales workers: Including air hostesses and travel guides; house stewards; cooks and waiters; baby-sitters; hairdressers and beauticians; cashiers and ticket clerks; rank and file staff of the police and other discipline services; transport conductors and other service workers; wholesale and retail salesman in shops; shop assistants and fashion models.
Craft and related workers: Including miners and quarrymen; bricklayers, carpenters and other construction workers; metal moulders; blacksmiths; machinery, electric and electronic instrument mechanics; jewellery workers and watch makers; potters; typesetters; bakers, food and beverage processors; painters; craft workers in textile, garment, leather, rubber and plastic trades and other craft workers.
Plant and machine operators and assemblers: Including well drillers and borers; ore smelting furnace operators; brick and tile kilnmen; sawmill sawyers; paper makers; chemical processing plant operators; power-generating plant and boiler operators; asbestos cement products makers; metal finishers and electroplaters; dairy and other food processing machine operators; printing machine operators; machine operators for production of textile, rubber and plastic products; assemblers; drivers; seamen and other plant and machine operators.
Elementary occupations: Including street vendors; domestic helpers and cleaners; messengers; private security guards; watchmen; freight handlers; lift operators; construction labourers; hand packers; food preparation assistants; agricultural and fishery labourers.
Skilled agricultural and fishery workers; and occupations not classifiable: Including farm workers, animal husbandry workers and fishermen, and occupations unidentifiable and inadequately described.
Occupied quarters
Quarters refer to such unit of accommodation as flats, houses and structures which could be used for the purpose of accommodation. Occupied quarters refer to those quarters which were occupied by those people under the Hong Kong Resident Population at the reference moment.
Outstanding period of mortgage payment or loan repayment
This is the number of outstanding years of the mortgage or loan period on the quarters occupied by a domestic household it owns with mortgage or loan. If more than one mortgage or loan term is involved, only the one involving the longest outstanding mortgage or loan period is required.
Overall dependency ratio
The number of persons aged under 15 and 65 and over per 1 000 persons aged between 15 and 64.
Place of birth
This is the country/territory in which the person was born.
Place of study
The place of study of a person refers to the geographical area in Hong Kong where the educational institution (including pre-primary, primary, secondary and post-secondary educational institutions) is located and where the person concerned has to go to attend full-time course.
Place of work
The place of work of a person refers to the district where the work place of a person is located and where the person concerned usually stayed or went during the 7 days before the By-census for business matters. For a person who has more than one job during the reference period, the place of work refers to that of his/ her main employment. For a person who changes his/ her work place day to day (e.g. construction site worker) or has many work places (e.g. doctor working in both hospital and clinic, mobile hawker), the work place is where the person worked for the longest hours in the reference period. For a person who has no fixed place of work (e.g. salesman, driver) but needed to report duty every day, the location of the office or depot is the work place. For a cross-border truck driver who drives between Hong Kong and the Mainland and spends most of the working hours in the Mainland, then the Mainland is the place of work.
Population
That is the Hong Kong Resident Population, covering “Usual Residents” and “Mobile Residents”. “Usual Residents” refer to two categories of people: (1) Hong Kong Permanent Residents who had stayed in Hong Kong for at least 3 months during the 6 months before or for at least 3 months during the 6 months after the reference moment, regardless of whether they were in Hong Kong or not at the reference moment; and (2) Hong Kong Non-permanent Residents who were in Hong Kong at the reference moment. As for “Mobile Residents”, they are Hong Kong Permanent Residents who had stayed in Hong Kong for at least 1 month but less than 3 months during the 6 months before or for at least 1 month but less than 3 months during the 6 months after the reference moment, regardless of whether they were in Hong Kong or not at the reference moment.
Population density
The ratio of the number of persons to the land area (in square kilometers) of the geographical division in which they are residing. The land area refers to that provided by the Lands Department for the position as at end-June of respective years.
Reference moment
This refers to the reference moment of the 2016 Population By-census which was fixed at 3:00 a.m. on 30 June 2016. In recording the whereabouts of a person at the reference moment, a person who was on night shift, on the way home or at a place not for accommodation was regarded as staying in the quarters being enumerated.
Rent to income ratio
The percentage of monthly household income paid on monthly household rent of a domestic household renting the accommodation it occupies. All zero income households and/ or zero rent households are excluded in the calculation.
School attendance rate
The percentage of population attending full-time course in educational institutions (in the first half of 2016 for the 2016 Population By-census).
Sex ratio
The ratio of the number of males per 1 000 females.
Tenure of accommodation
The terms and conditions under which accommodation is held by a domestic household. The different terms are defined as follows:
Owner-occupier, with mortgage payment or loan repayment: A household which owns the quarters it occupies with mortgage payment or loan repayment for the quarters.
Owner-occupier, without mortgage payment and loan repayment: A household which owns the quarters it occupies without any mortgage payment and loan repayment for the quarters.
Sole tenant: A household which rents the whole quarters it occupies from someone who lives outside the quarters without sharing it with other household(s) or subletting.
Co-tenant: Two or more households each of which rents part of the quarters from someone who lives outside the quarters.
Main tenant: A household which rents the whole quarters it occupies from someone who lives outside the quarters and sublets part of it to other household(s).
Sub-tenant: A household which rents part of the quarters from someone who lives in the same quarters.
Rent free: A household which occupies an accommodation free, with or without the owner’s permission. This excludes households occupying accommodation provided by employers.
Provided by employer: A household which occupies an accommodation provided by the employer of one of the household members. This also includes households occupying quarters leased from employers at a nominal rent. If a household member uses housing allowance given by his/ her employer for renting accommodation, the tenure is not considered as provided by employer.
Type of housing
This refers to the nature of housing for the unit of accommodation. The different types are determined based on the type of quarters of the unit of accommodation as follows:
Public rental housing: Including all public rental housing units.
Subsidised home ownership housing: Including all subsidised sale flats.
Private permanent housing: Including all private residential flats; all villas/ bungalows/ modern village houses; all simple stone houses/ traditional village houses; and all units of staff quarters.
Non-domestic housing: Including all units of quarters in non-residential buildings and all units of collective living quarters.
Temporary housing: Including all units of temporary quarters.
Type of quarters
Quarters are classified according to the type of buildings in which they are located. The buildings are classified by the type of construction materials; the purpose for which they are built; and the sector responsible for their construction.
Permanent quarters: This comprises public rental housing units; subsidised sales flats; private residential flats; other quarters in private permanent housing; and non-domestic quarters. Details are as follows:
Public rental housing units: Including all public rental housing flats and interim housing flats managed by the Hong Kong Housing Authority as well as all rental flats managed by the Hong Kong Housing Society.
Subsidised sale flats: Including flats sold under various home ownership schemes of the Hong Kong Housing Authority, the Hong Kong Housing Society and the Urban Renewal Authority that are still subject to alienation restrictions. Flats that are free of alienation restrictions are excluded.
Private residential flats: Including all flats and apartments in multi-storey blocks or houses built by the private sector mainly for residential purpose and all former subsidised sale flats (i.e. those free of alienation restrictions).
Other quarters in private permanent housing:
Including the following three categories:
Villas/ Bungalows/ Modern village houses: These are individual houses of one-storey or multi-storeys built with full facilities including bathroom, flush toilet and internal piped water supply.
Simple stone structures/ Traditional village houses: Simple stone structures are houses built of stones and/ or other permanent materials usually of one storey high. Traditional village houses are also grouped under this category.
Staff quarters: These are units of quarters in purposely-built staff quarters buildings. Units of quarters not purposely built but provided by employer for accommodation purposes are excluded and they are classified in accordance with their respective types of buildings.
Non-domestic quarters:
Including the following two categories:
Quarters in non-residential buildings: These include all units of accommodation known to be used for residential purpose in non-residential buildings (such as commercial buildings and industrial buildings).
Collective living quarters: These include all units of accommodation (such as rooms and beds) in psychiatric hospitals, convalescent hospitals, infirmaries, penal institutions, elderly homes, boys’ and girls’ homes, religious houses, hotels, hostels and dormitories (such as those for university students).
Temporary quarters: These include quarters in temporary housing areas as well as private temporary structures such as roof-top structures, contractor’s matsheds, nissen huts, huts and places not intended for residential purpose (such as landings, staircases, corridors, etc.). Vessels are also grouped under this category.
Usual language
The usual language is the language/ dialect a person used in daily communication at home. This is not applicable to persons aged under 5 or mute persons.
Usual Residents
Usual residents refer to two categories of people: (1) Hong Kong Permanent Residents who had stayed in Hong Kong for at least 3 months during the 6 months before or for at least 3 months during the 6 months after the reference moment, regardless of whether they were in Hong Kong or not at the reference moment; and (2) Hong Kong Non-permanent Residents who were in Hong Kong at the reference moment.
Working population
The working population refers to persons aged 15 and over who should (a) be engaged in performing work for pay or profit during the 7 days before the By-census; or (b) have formal job attachment during the 7 days before the By-census. The working population can be distinguished by the employment status as follows:
Employee: A person who works for an employer (private companies or government) for wage, salary, commission, tips or payment in kind. Domestic helpers, outworkers and paid family workers are also included here.
Employer: A person who works for profit or fees in his/ her own business/ profession and employs one or more persons to work for him/ her.
Self-employed: A person who works for profit or fees in his/ her own business/ profession, neither employed by someone nor employing others.
Unpaid family worker: A person who works for no pay in a family business is also considered as employed. Food and lodging and pocket money are not counted as pay.