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Research and Development (R&D)
R&D activities refer to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis so as to increase the stock of knowledge for devising new and improved products/processes/applications and improve existing products/processes/applications. They usually carry an appreciable element of novelty or innovation and can be conducted in such areas as natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, social sciences and humanities.
R&D expenditure covers both capital and current expenditures on R&D projects. Capital expenditure includes actual expenditure on acquisition of land, buildings and major equipment mainly for R&D activities during the reference year. Current expenditure includes compensation of R&D employees and cost of materials and supplies for R&D activities.
R&D personnel refer to persons directly engaged in R&D activities in the business sector, the government sector or the higher education sector. They cover researchers, technicians and other supporting staff. Figures on R&D personnel are expressed in Full-time Equivalent (FTE), which is estimated on the basis of the total number of man-years devoted to in-house R&D activities during the reference year.
Glossary of Terms